Matter It is everything that has mass and occupies space. Anything that has physical or real existence is matter.
Everything in the known universe manifests as matter or energy.
The matter may be liquid, solid or gaseous. Examples of this are paper, wood, air, water, stone.
Substance and mixture
Analyzing matter qualitatively (quality), we call it substance.
Substance - has a characteristic, determined composition and a defined set of properties. It can be simple (formed by only one chemical element) or compound (formed by several chemical elements).
Examples of simple substance: gold, mercury, iron, zinc.
Examples of compound: water, sugar (sucrose), table salt (sodium chloride).
Mixture - are two or more substances grouped, where the composition is variable and their properties as well.
Example of mixtures: blood, milk, air, wood, granite, sugar water.
Body and object
Analyzing matter quantitatively, we call it body.
Body - These are limited amounts of matter, such as an ice floe, a gold bar.
The worked bodies and with some use are called objects. A gold bar (body) can be made into a ring, earring (object).
Chemical and physical phenomena
Phenomenon It is a transformation of matter. It can be chemical or physical.
Chemical phenomenon It is a transformation of matter with alteration of its composition.
Examples: gas, wood combustion, rust formation, water electrolysis.
Chemistry - It is the science that studies the chemical phenomena. It studies the different substances, their transformations, how they interact and the energy involved.
Physical phenomenon It is the transformation of matter without altering its composition.
Examples: light reflection, water solidification, boiling of ethyl alcohol.
Physics - It is the science that studies the physical phenomena. It studies the properties of matter and energy without chemical change.
What defines matter are its properties. There are the general properties and the specific properties.
The general properties are common for all types of matter and do not allow to differentiate from each other. They are: mass, weight, inertia, elasticity, compressibility, extension, divisibility, impenetrability.
Pasta - measure of the amount of matter of a body. Determines inertia and weight.
Inertia - resistance that a body offers to any attempt to vary its state of movement or rest. The body that is at rest tends to be at rest, and the body that is in motion tends to be in motion with constant speed and direction.
Weight - is the gravitational force between the body and the earth.
Elasticity - Property where matter has to return to its initial volume after the force that causes compression ceases.
Compressibility - property where matter has to reduce its volume when subjected to certain pressures.
Extension - property where matter has to take place in space.
Divisibility - matter may be divided into smaller and smaller portions. The smallest portion of matter is the molecule, which still retains its properties.
Impenetrability - two bodies cannot occupy the same space at the same time.
The specific properties are unique to each type of matter, differentiating them from each other. They can be classified into organoleptic, physical and chemical.
Organoleptic properties can be perceived by the sense organs (eyes, nose, tongue). They are: color, brightness, odor and taste.
Physical properties are: melting point and boiling point, solidification, liquefaction, specific heat, absolute density, magnetic properties, malleability, ductility, hardness and toughness.
Melting and boiling point - are the temperatures at which matter passes from the solid to the liquid phase and from the liquid to the gas phase, respectively.
Boiling and liquefaction point - are the temperatures at which matter passes from the liquid to the gas phase and from the gas to the liquid phase, respectively.
Specific heat - is the amount of heat required to increase by 1 degree Celsius (° C) the temperature of 1 mass graph of any substance. Can be measured in calories.
Absolute density - relationship between mass and volume of a body.
d = m: V
Magnetic property - ability of a substance to attract pieces of iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni).
Malleability - is the property that allows matter to be transformed into a blade. Characteristic of metals.
Ductility - ability of the substance to be transformed into wires. Characteristic of metals.
Toughness - is determined by the resistance of the material surface to scratching by another material. Diamond is the hardest material in nature.
Tenacity - is the resistance that materials offer to mechanical shock, ie impact. Resists strong impact without breaking.
Chemical properties are responsible for the types of transformation each substance is capable of undergoing. These processes are the chemical reactions.